The “power of the sword”—that is the control of force—is to always be in the hands of WE THE PEOPLE, who claim authorship of and are the inheritors of Constitution. As the Declaration of Independence proclaimed, “governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers (and only ‘just powers’) from the consent of the governed.” And consent is something by hypothesis can be withdrawn in the event some form of oppressive government tries to exercise “unjust powers”. If I have an agent and he is not performing properly, I take away his authority because his authority is the sole product of my consent. And if this agent by happenstance has gained certain kinds of physical power, which I put in his hands that make him potentially dangerous to me—if he steps out of line—if he crosses the line beyond his authority—I had better have the physical ability to bring him back across the line or otherwise deal with him on those terms. The unique institutions constitutionally sanctioned for this purpose are “the Militia of the several States”—the “well regulated Militia” which the Second Amendment recognizes to be “necessary to the security of a free State”.
WE THE PEOPLE declared in our Constitution that “[t]he United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government”. (footnote 2) The Constitution does not expressly define “a Republican Form”. But it also does not—cannot—leave that definition to the General Government, either (footnote 3) To the contrary: the Constitution treats “the Militia of the several States as perpetual in existence and permanent in authority and character. Therefore, because each of the “several States” must maintain her own Militia, and because “every State in this Union” must be guaranteed “a RepublicanForm of Government”, then simply per force of constitutional logic, “a Republican Form” must encompass Militia in every State.
Perforce of American history, too, in the scores of substantively identical Militia Acts enacted in every Colony and independent State for nearly one hundred fifty years from the early 1600s through the ratification of the Constitution in 1788. Every State government in America between 1776 and 1788 was “Republican” in form. Every Colony in America prior to 1776 had established and maintained as integral parts of their governmental structures, Militia that had enrolled essentially every “able-bodied free male in their jurisdictions. Therefore, such Militia constitute an essential characteristic of “a Republican Form of Government”. For such an unbroken legislative cavalcade provides “unmistakable evidence of what was republican in form, within the meaning of hat term as employed in the Constitution”. (footnote 4)