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“Militia” are institutions of government composed of “the people” (Second Amendment) themselves organized under statute that “keep and bear Arms” to—
1.) “execute the Laws”
2.) “suppress insurrections”
3.) “repel invasions” ART I, § 8, CL 15

Virginia MIlitia

Virginia “Regulating” Her Militia

Pre-constitutional Virginia Regulating Her Militia From the earliest days, Virginia recognized, as she declared in 1672 and reaffirmed in 1676, that “against all tymes of danger...
Militia Rhode Island

Rhode Island “Regulating” Her Militia

Pre-constitutional Rhode Island Regulating Her Militia As was the case in Virginia and throughout the other Colonies and then independent States, in their titles, their bodies,...
militia training

Militia Structure: Training

Militia Structure— 3rd Main ProvisionTRAINING: Every “able-bodied” adult is required to be trained at the State level pursuant to CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION AND STATE STATUTE 3rd...
Militia Armament

Militia Structure: Near Universal Armament

Militia Structure— 2nd Main ProvisionNEAR UNIVERSAL ARMAMENT: Every “able-bodied” adult is required to be armed for Militia service pursuant to CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION AND STATE...
Militia Organization

Militia Structure: Total Organization

Militia Structure— 1st Main ProvisionTOTAL ORGANIZATION: Every “able-bodied” adult is part of "the Militia of the several States" pursuant to CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISION AND STATE...
standing armies

Joseph Story

Justice Joseph StoryStory's Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States are recognized as a standard work in constitutional law. See, e.g., Field v....
Well Regulated

“Well Regulated Militia”

"well regulated Militia" (Second Amendment)When ratifying the Constitution in 1787 and 1788, WE THE PEOPLE would never have assigned to "the Militia of the...
Settle the Militia

“Settle” the Militia

"Settle" the MilitiaThe United States Constitution followed the long established legal pattern (see for example, Virginia and Rhode Island) of "settling" the Militia in...
State Governor


Governor: No Arbitrary Powers Over the Militia Because of the apparently broad powers that Governors in Virginia as well as other Colonies and then independent...
Constitutional Sheriff


SheriffContrary to popular belief, no pre-constitutional American Militia were ever made generally subordinate to, or in any particulars controlled by or answerable to, Local...
"well regulated Militia" 2nd Amendment

Related Topics

democrat vs republican

“Left” vs. “Right” Phony Political Spectrum

"Left" vs. "Right"If WE THE PEOPLE revitalize "the Militia of the several States", we will cut across all the dividing lines in the phony...
Official Immunity

“Official Immunity”

"Official Immunity"The Constitution itself provides for one and only one “official immunity”, in its allowance that, “for any Speech or Debate in either House...

“The War on Terror”

"The War on Terror" Rogue officials stir up the "fear" of "terrorism". With "terrorism" as their excuse they arrogate new "war powers" to themselves....
unconstitutional powers

“Emergency Powers”

"Emergency Powers"The real "emergency" that confronts Americans is the lust of aspiring and conspiring usurpers and tyrants for power WE THE PEOPLE have withheld...

“War”: The Constitutional Meaning

"War": The Constitutional MeaningConstitutionally speaking, "War" is a specific set of legal relations between two or more independent nations. Therefore no "War" can be...